Black and white image of Maria Mitchell with text saying: Maria Mitchell, was born on August 1, 1818, in Nantucket, Massachusetts, U.S. She was the first professional woman astronomer in the United States. In addition to other accomplishments, Mitchell pioneered ithe daily photography of sunspots & was the first to find that they were whirling vertical cavities rather than clouds, as had been earlier believed. In October 1847 Mitchell succeeded in establishing the orbit of a new comet, which became known as “Miss Mitchell’s Comet.” She died on June 28 , 1889.
Image of Johannes Kepler with text to the left saying: On July 19, 1595, German astronomer, mathematician, astrologer, natural philosopher and writer on music, Johannes Kepler has an epiphany and develops his theory of the geometrical basis of the universe while teaching in Graz. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, Johannes Kepler discovered how planets rotated around sun with elliptical orbits. In 1600 he moved to Prague to assist astronomer Tycho Brahe in Prague, where he was able to use Brahe's observational records to document and develop his theories. Kepler formulated three laws known as Kepler's Laws and his work went on to provide one of the foundations of Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.

Johannes Kepler

Caroline Herschel, First Professional Female Astronomer

Fantastic Women Series – Caroline Herschel First Professional Female Astronomer

Caroline Herschel was the First Professional Female Astronomer who discovered comets and star clusters in the 18th century and the first to be awarded a Gold Medal by the Royal Society.

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